What is share allotment?

Chris Andreou

April 21, 2021

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Limited Company

Share allotment refers to the creation and issuing of new shares to new or existing shareholders. This differs from share transfer, which is the procedure of passing existing shares from existing shareholders to other individuals.

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What type of business structure is best for you?

If you're looking to the future with the hopes of beginning a journey running your own startup, chances are you're feeling some mixture of excitement, trepidation, and uncertainty when it comes to the finer details of your plan.

Starting your own business is an immensely fulfilling process and an excellent means to flex your creative muscles, but there's a lot of humdrum of business behind the process of turning a vision into a dream.

One of the most important (and one of the earliest) decisions in this process will centre around your business's formation. You'll have to select which type of business structure best suits your goals for the future.

While the choice may sound easy, you'll be well-served by giving the decision ample consideration. The business structure you select will have measurable implications on the way you make money and do business. It'll impact:

  • How much tax you pay
  • Your degree of personal liability should the business fail
  • How much administrative work is involved in the business (both before it comes to fruition and over the course of its life)
  • Your ability to finance and fund your efforts

If you make the wrong selection when it comes time to choose a business structure, you could be faced with a myriad of complications in the future.

Paying professionals for guidance and advice once things go wrong is costly and, for many, an embarrassing affair-performing research well in advance will ensure you're making the best choice for your company and that you can avoid losing out on money or pride later on.

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Entrepreneurs relief: selling shares

If you are selling shares in all or part of your business, you might qualify for a Capital Gains tax relief called Entrepreneurs' Relief.

Below, you'll find a short guide providing a quick overview of the essentials - including how Entrepreneurs' Relief works, whether you're eligible for a claim and how you can make a claim. Keep in mind that this is a general guide, and we highly recommend speaking with an accountant before you make a claim.

Entrepreneurs' Relief is a scheme that reduces the amount of Capital Gains Tax payable when you dispose of (sell) shares in your business. Instead of the usual rates, you pay a reduced tax rate of 10% on the first £10 million of gains. There isn't a limit to the number of times you can claim.

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When do I need a Limited company as a contractor?

There is no clear cut time as to when you should start working through your own limited company. With other routes available-such as operating as a sole trader, or working through an umbrella company-it is always worth weighing up what is best for you and your circumstances.

With that being said, if you plan to work as an independent contractor for the foreseeable future, opening your own limited company at the early stages can maximise your opportunities for reaping the benefits of having your own company straight away.

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How do I register a limited company?

There are a couple of ways to go about registering a limited company:

  • Register directly through Companies House
  • Go through a third party: An accountant or company formation service can help you process your application, significantly lessening your admin burden. Beyond the application, a good third-party service can also provide accounting advice, help you fulfil your filing obligations and assist with other admin tasks.

We've included further details in our guide on setting up a limited company.

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How do I file for SEIS investment?

To apply for the Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS), you need to:

You may submit your application by email (enterprise.centre@hmrc.gsi.gov.uk), or via post.

The postal address is:

Venture Capital Reliefs Team

WMBC

HM Revenue and Customs

BX9 1BN

For further information, see HMRC's resource or the the SEIS section of the HMRC Venture Capital Manual.

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How do I register my business?

To register a business as a sole trader, you need to:

Once you've registered, you need to fulfil your responsibilities as a sole trader. These include:

  • Keeping records of your sales and expenses
  • Submitting a Self Assessment tax return each year
  • Paying income tax and National Insurance Contributions

To set up a limited company, you need to:

  • Decide what type of limited company you need
  • Choose a business name
  • Choose how to set up your limited company
  • Complete the company formation process
  • Open a business bank account
  • Inform your stakeholders
  • Get your VAT registration or transfer sorted out
  • Set up your payroll
  • Update your company details
  • Get your books sorted out

To set up a business partnership, you need to:

  • Choose a business name
  • Choose a ‚Äònominated partner'
  • Register with HMRC
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How do I invest in my business?

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How do I file for EIS investment?

To apply for the Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS), you need to:

  • Obtain the application form from HMRC. You need to request for the form in Welsh.
  • If you've received advance assurance, you need to show copies of documents that have changed since you received advance assurance from HMRC.
  • If you haven't received advance assurance, you need to provide the following information about your company and any subsidiaries:
  • Business plan and financial forecasts
  • Latest accounts or bank statements
  • An explanation of how you meet the risk to capital condition
  • Information on all trading and activities to be carried out, and how much you expect to spend on each activity

An up-to-date copy of the memorandum and articles of association

  • The information memorandum, prospectus or other document used to explain the fundraising proposal to your investors
  • Information of any other agreements between your company and the shareholder
  • A list of the amounts, dates and venture capital schemes under which you've previously received investment
  • Any other documents to show you meet the qualifying conditions
  • If you're applying as a knowledge intensive company, you need to provide evidence of how you qualify as one.
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What is a share transfer?

Share transfer is the procedure of passing existing shares from existing shareholders to other individuals.

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What are Personal service companies?

While there isn't a legal or formal definition of the term, personal service companies (PSC) refer to limited companies that are owned by a contractor, who is also the only shareholder and sole director. In some instances, the company may also be owned by a very small group of individuals.

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What are the disadvantages of a Limited Company?

The drawbacks to setting up a limited company include:

  • There are additional filing and reporting requirements to adhere to.
  • Reduced privacy
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What are the advantages of a Limited Company?

The advantages to setting up a limited company are:

  • Owners aren't fully liable
  • Tax savings
  • Using a limited company structure lends credibility to your business
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Sole Trader vs Limited Company

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Registering a Limited Company Guide

  • What is a Limited Company
  • 10 step process for setting up a Limited Company
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How to set up a Limited Company

When you set up a limited company, you'll enjoy many advantages you don't get as a sole trader. Not only is it a tax-efficient way to run your business, it's also a great way to limit your personal liability and increase your credibility with customers. Additionally, it could open new avenues of work that wouldn't be open to you if you were operating as a sole trader, especially some contractor roles.

One of the disadvantages of running a limited company is that it involves a lot of paperwork, but with the help of this guide, we'll clear away the jargon and tell you exactly what you need.

If you're unsure about whether a limited company is right for you, check out our handy article comparing the differences between Limited companies and Sole Traders to see which business entity is right for you.

If you've got more important things to do than dealing with extra admin, you can always take advantage of one of our accountancy packages and we'll do all the forms and applications for you.

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What is share allotment?

Share allotment refers to the creation and issuing of new shares to new or existing shareholders. This differs from share transfer, which is the procedure of passing existing shares from existing shareholders to other individuals.

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5 disadvantages of a limited company

What are the advantages of a private limited company?

In the UK, the majority of self-employed people operate as sole traders. While there are many advantages to being a sole trader, you could take home more money and give your business a professional edge by setting up as a limited company.

In this article, we'll look at the advantages of operating as a private limited company to see how it could benefit you. If you're interested in seeing whether a limited company could be a good option for your business, check out our Business Structure guide. If you're already operating as a sole trader, making the jump to a limited company is more straight forward than you think.

Advantage 1 ‚- You pay less tax and National Insurance Contributions

Who can turn their nose up at the prospect of increased take-home pay? Well, that's the principle benefit of setting up a limited company and one of the main factors that drive people to switch from a sole trader.

As a director of a limited company, the way you pay tax is different from how you pay as a sole trader. As a sole trader, you'll pay 20% or more on everything you earn over the tax threshold. As a limited company, you typically pay yourself a small salary so you incur as little personal tax as possible. The majority of your income will come in the form of dividends that are taxed at a much smaller rate, meaning you're able to maximise your take-home pay.

As well as the tax benefits, paying the majority of your income through dividends means that you're able to pay less National Insurance Contributions (NICs) as these do not apply to dividend payments.

Example - Here's a quick comparison of the difference in take-home pay for a sole trader and a limited company.

  1. Sole Trader
    Revenue: £40,000
    Expenses: £1000
    Tax at 20%: £5,300
    Class 2 NIC: £158.60
    Class 4 NIC: £2,655
    Take-home pay: £30,886.40


  2. Limited Company
    Revenue: £40,000
    Expenses: £1000
    Corporation tax: £5741.04
    Dividend tax at 7.5%: 1,406.92
    Take-home pay: £ 31,852.04

As you can see, you save £965.64 as a limited company. What's not to like?

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How do I set up a Limited Company?

To set up a limited company, you need to take the following steps:

  • Decide what kind of limited company you need
  • Choose a business name
  • Choose how to set up your limited company
  • Complete the company formation process
  • Open a business bank account
  • Inform your stakeholders
  • Get your VAT registration or transfer sorted out
  • Set up your payroll
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How many shares should my new Company issue?

A minimum of one share must be issued upon incorporating. Additionally, if you plan on having more than one shareholder, then you must issue at least one share per shareholder.

Often, individuals who wish to be sole owners issue a single share in order to own 100% of their company. However, if they later wish to split the ownership, or change the structure of the business, having only 1 share could lead to complications down the line.

A common practice is to issue share capital which is easily divisible in the future (for example it may be best to issue 50 or 100 shares upon incorporation). By doing so this will allow you to change the ownership of shares more easily down the road. Many businesses tend to issue 100 shares of £1 each, with each share representing 1% of the business.

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5 advantages of a limited company

The advantages of operating as a limited company are well known. It can be a great way to maximise your take-home pay, improve your credibility with customers and limit your personal liability. Like most things in life, it's a case of what's best for your situation. While the positives outweigh the negatives for most people, there are a few things you should know before you make the jump to a limited company.

In this article, we'll outline the disadvantages of operating as a private limited company. Bear in mind that there are many advantages to a limited company and in many cases, these advantages will outweigh the disadvantages, so don't think of this as a report of doom and gloom.

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