How Will Brexit Affect Contractors and Independent Consultants

Chris Andreou

April 21, 2021

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Contractors

Introduction

The United Kingdom left the European Union on 31 January 2020. In 2020, the EU and the UK reached an agreement on their new partnership. It sets out the rules that apply between the EU and the UK as of 1 January 2021. 

The rules cover aspects such as travel and border controls, trade in services, trade in goods, fair competition, social security, the transfer of personal data and more—a number of which may significantly impact contractors and independent consultants working in Europe and the UK.

In our article, we take a closer look at the key areas in which contractors and consultants will be affected:

Tax

VAT

We’ll be looking only at the B2B general rule for the supply of services, given that most independent consultants operate in the B2B sector. 

The B2B rule is that the supply is made where the customer is situated. If you’re supplying services to businesses located in the EU, the place of supply is outside of the UK—and as such, UK VAT is not chargeable. Independent professionals in the UK providing services to EU businesses do not need to charge VAT, and this remains unchanged after Brexit.   

Social security contributions

According to HMRC, contract workers may need to pay dual contributions to their country of origin and country of work, depending on where they’ll be working and how long they’ll be working abroad. 

As a self-employed individual, you will usually pay NICs in the UK if you’re working abroad temporarily in the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland. You’ll need to obtain a certificate of continuing liability as proof that you’re not required to pay social security contributions in the country you’re working in. To apply for the certificate, use form CA3837.

Freedom of movement

The end to the freedom of movement is one of the most significant impacts of Brexit. Moving forward, UK independent professionals can no longer work freely between and among the 28 member states of the EU. 

There are now additional considerations to account for, including visas, checking if your professional qualifications are recognised in the EU and notifying HMRC that you’ll be working in the region. 

Visas: 

A visa, work permit or other documentation may be required to carry out contract work in the EU, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland or Liechtenstein if you’re staying for longer than 90 days in a 180-period. You’ll need to check the entry requirements and rules of the country you’re travelling to find out if you need a visa or work permit. 

If you’re performing contract work in the above-mentioned locations and are staying for less than 90 days in a 180-day period, you may be able to carry out certain activities—such as attending business meetings—without obtaining a visa or work permit. 

Qualifications: 

Depending on the type of service you provide, you may need to check if your qualifications are recognised in the EU. 

Notify HMRC:

You may need to notify HMRC that you’re working abroad.

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Data transfer and GDPR

The European Union Commission issued its draft adequacy decision for data flows between the European Union (EU) and United Kingdom (UK) on February 19 2021, confirming its acceptance that UK data protection levels are adequate.   

Presently, the decision is pending review by the European Data Protection Board. A press release from the European Union reported that the European Commission will “request the green light from Member States' representatives in the comitology procedure”, following which the “European Commission could adopt the final adequacy decisions for the UK”.

This is welcome news for independent consultants and businesses. If the decision is adopted, the free flow of data between the EU and UK may continue without the need for additional provisions, which can be costly and time-consuming to implement. According to business publication diginomica, the average compliance costs for UK companies may amount to a sizable sum—£3,000 for a micro business, and £10,000 for a small business—if the agreement were to fall through.

Contract work and opportunities

While Brexit brings many new uncertainties, it is important for contractors and independent consultants to look quickly at, and take advantage of the opportunities that arise. 

On one hand, the restrictions in mobility may cause companies in the EU to reconsider the need to engage UK professionals for contract work. This could result in the termination or renegotiation of contracts for contractors. 

But it’s not all gloom and doom. The way we work has changed radically over the past year as a result of the COVID-10 pandemic. As remote working becomes the new normal, this presents an opportunity for consultants to continue contracting for businesses outside the UK—without the need to be always present physically.

Consulting network Comatch’s UK&I Managing Director Charlotte Gregson explains: “Consultants have traditionally worked long hours and travelled considerably as the job has demanded. The legacy of 2020… has not only challenged this established view but will lead to a rebuttal of the idea that the ideal consultant is necessarily the one that is present and available in-location.”

“There will always be a certain demand for travel–both from the business and consultant – but the image that this is the only way to go will hopefully change with the post-Covid consultant able to deliver the high-quality results of pre-pandemic, but in a different manner.”

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Don't sweat the Brexit business impact Guide

Don't sweat the Brexit business impact

This article is updated regularly as events unfold.

Enough drama and politics, in practical terms, what is actually going to happen?

Accurately predicting the future has never been easy, and the people who claim to know how to do it usually get it wrong - often due to the methodologies they have to work within.

The task gets even more convoluted with a large geopolitical development like Brexit: clear waters are muddied by personal political agendas and few people really understand things like macroeconomics, grand strategy or the development of purpose which fits history together.

We're not going to explain any of that here, where we just focus on the practicalities of the process: those legislative and business factors which are already in position.

The big question is whether Brexit will tank the UK economy. The short answer is no, because of cui bono, or those who stand to benefit.

The little questions are: to what extent will Brexit inconvenience you in your business and personal life? And the answer to that one is 'not much'.

Let's look at the actual structural changes that Brexit will result in as we piece together an apolitical, non-sensationalist picture of what is really going on.

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What are the disadvantages of contracting? Guide

What are the disadvantages of contracting?

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  • Uncertainty: Due to the flexible nature of their working relationships, contractors aren't guaranteed work after the end of assignment or project.
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Post-Brexit Guide: Importing from EU to the UK Guide

Post-Brexit Guide: Importing from EU to the UK

Ecommerce businesses haven't had the easiest time navigating the post-Brexit changes, to say the least. You've had to stay up-to-date on changes to the UK's customs landscape and VAT, and figure out the steps you need to take to adhere to new measures.

To help you along, we've provided an overview of the customs procedures for importing goods from the EU to the UK below.

Bear in mind that this is a general guide, and isn't a substitute for specific advice. If you need further information about VAT, feel free to reach out to our tax consultants at Forma.

Obtain an EORI number

Businesses will now require an EORI number-or Economic Operators Registration and Identification number-to import goods into the UK.

You'll need to check the type of EORI number you need. Depending on the location you import from or export to, you may require more than one EORI number.

If you're based in the UK, you should obtain an EORI number that begins with GB. If you already have an EORI number that doesn't with GB, you'll have to apply for a GB EORI number. If you're moving goods to or from Northern Ireland, you'll need to obtain an EORI number that begins with XI. Do note that you can't apply for an XI EORI number, unless you already have a GB EORI number.

If you need to apply for an EORI number, bear in mind that it can take up to one week for the application to be completed.

Find out if the post-Brexit changes regarding import VAT apply to your business

Following Brexit, new VAT rules relating to imports, exports, the EU VAT refund system and more have been established.

We've summarised the key changes you need to know if you're importing into the UK in our VAT guide for ecommerce businesses. These include:

  • Abolition of the Low Value Consignment Relief (LVCR)
  • Duty deferment account
  • Introduction of the £135 threshold
  • Introduction of the postponed VAT accounting.

Do note that the postponed VAT accounting is mandatory if you choose to defer the submission of customs declarations. We'll run through the details of completing your import declarations below.

Check that the business sending you goods is able to export to the UK

You need to ensure that the business sending you goods has all the necessary steps required to export to the UK. It includes:

  • Making an export declaration in their country
  • Obtaining the required EU licences or certificates
  • Having an EU EORI number
  • Having a statement of origin
  • Having a commercial invoice
  • Having a packing list

Additional resources:

Preferential tariffs and the rules of origin

The UK and EU have agreed on a free trade agreement, which came into force on 1 January 2021.

For businesses that export and import between the UK and EU, this has an important implication: the agreement provides businesses with customs duty and quota-free access to the respective markets, provided that the rules of origin are met.

To find out if you can claim a preferential rate of duty, you need to check if your goods meet the rules of origin. If the goods meet the rules, you'll need to obtain a proof of origin. The type of proof required will vary depending on the type of goods you have, where it is imported from or where the goods will be exported to.

You should also check if you're able to pay a lower rate of duty, or delay paying duty.

Additional resources:

Applying for a duty deferment account

A duty deferment account lets you delay paying customs charges such as customs duties, excise duties and import VAT (if you're not using the postponed VAT accounting system). You'll be able to make monthly payment through Direct Debit, rather than paying for individual consignments immediately upon import.

If you're importing goods on a regular basis, making monthly payments will likely be a more convenient option. There are also instances where applying for a duty deferment account is mandatory, such as when you're using the simplified frontier declaration system

Do note that the new rules for duty deferment will apply in Great Britain. While obtaining a financial guarantee was a requirement previously, businesses now have the option of applying for a guarantee waiver for their account.

Additional resources:

Import licences and certificates

Depending on the type of goods you import, you may need to obtain an import licence or certificate.

Commodity codes

Use HMRC's Trade Tariff tool to find the right commodity code for the goods you're importing.

Work out the value of your goods

When you complete your import declaration, you're required to indicate the value of your goods. This is required for the calculation of the duty and VAT you need to pay, as well as for trade statistics.

Read HMRC's guidance to learn about the different methods you can use to work out the value of your goods.

Completing your import declarations

You'll need to decide how you'll complete your import declarations.

You have the option of either completing the import declarations on your own, or through using customs intermediaries such as freight forwarders, fast parcel operators and customs agents or brokers.

Due to the complexity of the procedures, using an intermediary is the recommended option for businesses. This HMRC guide provides further instructions on steps you need to take.

If you choose to complete import declarations on your own, there are a few important things you need to know:

  • Deferring import declarations until 30 June 2021: From January 2021 till 30 June 2021, customs declarations may be deferred for imported goods from the EU. Customs payments may also be deferred until the declaration is submitted. Do note that there are exceptions (such as if you're importing controlled goods) and qualifying conditions (for instance, you'll need to be authorised by HMRC to use the simplified declaration procedure). Find out more on the HMRC guide.
  • Using the simplified declaration procedure (SDP): Depending on factors like the type of goods you're importing, you may be able use the simplified declaration procedure. See the HMRC guide for further guidance on what you need to, including instructions on how to check if you're able to use the SDP.
  • Registering for the CHIEF system: CHIEF refers to the government's Customs Handling of Import and Export Freight service. You'll need to be registered for the CHIEF system, and use software that's compatible with CHIEF. While the CHIEF service is scheduled to be replaced by the Customs Declaration Service in the future, it remains in use for the time being.

Additional resources:

Review Incoterms

Depending on the choice of Incoterms used in a contract, the buyer and seller will have different customs duty responsibilities. In light of the post-Brexit changes, you need to review your contracts to check if updates should be made to your contract terms and Incoterms.

Additional resources:

Intrastat declarations

If you're a VAT-registered business, you may need to submit monthly Intrastat returns on ‘arrivals' (goods imported from VAT-registered suppliers in EU member states) if the value of goods exceed the stipulated annual thresholds:

  • Your business receives more than £1.5 million worth of goods from the EU in any calendar year
  • Your business moves more than £250,000 worth of goods to the EU from Northern Ireland in any calendar year

If the conditions above apply, submitting Intrastat declaration is required:

  • For the rest of 2021, if you're importing into Great Britain from the EU
  • Until the end of the NI Protocol, if you're importing into Northern Ireland from the EU

Additional resources:

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Post-Brexit Guide: Exporting From UK to the EU Guide

Post-Brexit Guide: Exporting From UK to the EU

Ecommerce businesses haven't had the easiest time navigating the post-Brexit changes, to say the least. You've had to stay up-to-date on changes to the UK's customs landscape and VAT, and figure out the steps you need to take to adhere to new measures.

To help you along, we've provided an overview of the customs procedures for exporting goods from the UK to the EU below.

Bear in mind that this is a general guide, and isn't a substitute for specific advice. If you need further information about VAT, feel free to reach out to our tax consultants at Forma.

Obtain an EORI number

Businesses will require a UK EORI number-this starts with either GB or XI-to export goods out of the UK. You'll also have to obtain the EU EORI number of the business you're exporting to in the EU.

If you're transporting goods to your warehouse in the EU, you'll need to obtain an EU EORI number.

If you need to apply for an EORI number, bear in mind that it can take up to one week for the application to be completed.

Getting ready for exporting your goods

There are are few things you'll need to check:

Find out if the post-Brexit changes regarding export VAT apply to your business

Following Brexit, new VAT rules relating to imports, exports, the EU VAT refund system and more have been established.

We've summarised the key updates you need to know if you're exporting from the UK in our VAT guide for ecommerce businesses. These include:

  • EC Sales Lists are no longer required for VAT-registered UK businesses supplying goods to VAT-registered customers in the EU
  • Abolition of the distance selling thresholds
  • The UK remains in the Common Transit Convention (CTC)
  • VAT-registered UK businesses are still able to zero-rate sales of goods to EU businesses, provided that certain conditions are met. Different conditions will apply, depending on whether you're exporting directly (where the goods are exported using your own vehicle, or through a company you employ directly) or indirectly (the collection of your goods is handled by your customer). See HMRC's guidance on VAT for further details.

Check the rules for exporting your goods

Depending on the type of goods you export, there may be rules, restrictions, tax or duty rates that apply, or additional exporting documents that are required.

You will also need to check:

Additional resources:

  • Use HMRC's online service to check the duties and customs procedures for exporting

Check that the business receiving your goods is able to import them

You need to make sure that the business receiving your goods has taken the necessary steps to adhere to the post-Brexit changes. You should check that they've obtained the necessary licences or certificates, or if they are able to complete the import customs declarations (if required).

Know the commodity codes of your goods

Use HMRC's Trade Tariff tool to find the right commodity code for the goods you're importing. If you're engaging a customs agent or transporter, they might be able to help you with classifying your goods.

Completing your export declarations

You'll need to decide how you'll complete your export declarations.

You have the option of either completing the export declarations on your own, or through using customs intermediaries such as freight forwarders, fast parcel operators and customs agents or brokers.

Due to the complexity of the procedures, using an intermediary is the recommended option for businesses. Refer to HMRC's guide for further instructions on steps you need to take.

If you choose to complete export declarations on your own, there are a few important things you need to know:

  • National Export System (NES): NES is a system that enables export declarations to be made electronically. To register, you'll need an EORI number and CHIEF badge role.
  • You have four options for making export declarations. You can make email, web or XML declarations. A CHIEF-compatible software for email and XML declarations. Your fourth option is to use Community Systems Providers, which are commercial entities that provide access to CHIEF for businesses. You'll need your own export software to access the system.

Whether you decide to use an intermediary or to complete the declarations yourself, you'll need to prepare the following information or documents:

  • Commodity code
  • Certificates or licences required
  • Invoice
  • Proof of origin, if you're exporting to a destination where your goods have a reduced or zero rate of duty
  • Departure point and destination
  • Consignee and consignor
  • Nature, amount and packaging of the goods
  • Method of transportation

Additional resources:

Intrastat declarations

HMRC no longer requires Intrastat declarations for exporting goods from Great Britain to the EU. Intrastat declarations are still required if you're exporting from Northern Ireland to the EU (until the end of the NI Protocol).

Additional resources:

Review Incoterms

Depending on the choice of Incoterms used in a contract, the buyer and seller will have different customs duty responsibilities. In light of the post-Brexit changes, you need to review your contracts to check if updates should be made to your contract terms and Incoterms.

Additional resources:

Additional considerations

1. Transportation:

You have two options: you may engage commercial transportation services, or use your own transport.

If you opt for the latter, you need to check for the driver's eligibility to drive overseas (they might need to have certain types of documents with them), and ensure that you have the required licences and permits. You'll also need to be aware of the different rules each destination might impose for the transportation of specific types of goods.

Additional resources:

2. Importer of record

If your company is acting as the importer of record (this will be the case if you're supplying on Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)), there are several requirements you need to adhere to:

  • You'll need to obtain an EU EORI number
  • You'll have to pay customs duty. This can be paid at the time of import, or deferred if you apply for duty deferment in the EU
  • You'll need to appoint an indirect representative to act as declarant on the customs declaration, if you don't have an EU establishment
  • You may apply for simplified procedures in the EU if you have an EU establishment
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What is a contractor? Guide

What is a contractor?

A contractor is a professional that provides skills and services to a specific client under set terms. The terms can be for a set number of hours, a certain time frame or duration of a project.

A contractor is responsible for their own dealings and has discretion over the work they carry out.

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19 Places to Find Contractor Jobs & Roles Guide

19 Places to Find Contractor Jobs & Roles

When you get into contracting, it can get stressful when your project end date is just around the corner and you haven't secured your next role. This amps up even more once you finish a contract and you're looking for your next gig.

As a specialist contractor accounting business founded by contractors, one of the key questions we get asked is about where to find roles. So, we decided to compile a list of some of the best contractor job portals, platforms, recruiters and consultancies.

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How will Brexit affect imports, exports, and shipping? Guide

How will Brexit affect imports, exports, and shipping?

Brexit has created a significant impact on imports, exports and shipping:

  • Ecommerce businesses will be affected by post-Brexit VAT changes, which includes the abolition of the distance selling threshold and Low Value Consignment Relief (LVCR), the introduction of the postponed VAT accounting system and more.
  • Businesses will have to abide by the new import and export rules, which may mean dealing with additional paperwork and customs checks.
  • The above mentioned changes will further impact other aspects of your business, such as your supply chain, fulfillment process and pricing. Additional checks may create shipping delays, while the new VAT changes will lead to a rise in costs.
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How Will Brexit Affect Contractors and Independent Consultants Guide

How Will Brexit Affect Contractors and Independent Consultants

The United Kingdom left the European Union on 31 January 2020. In 2020, the EU and the UK reached an agreement on their new partnership. It sets out the rules that apply between the EU and the UK as of 1 January 2021.

The rules cover aspects such as travel and border controls, trade in services, trade in goods, fair competition, social security, the transfer of personal data and more-a number of which may significantly impact contractors and independent consultants working in Europe and the UK.

In our article, we take a closer look at the key areas in which contractors and consultants will be affected:

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Guide to employing or hiring contractors Guide

Guide to employing or hiring contractors

You have an important project at hand, and you require a contractor's specialist knowledge to fill in the skill gap in your team. You're ready to hire-except that you're unfamiliar with the hiring process.

If this is your first time hiring a contractor, our article will guide you through the essentials.

We'll cover the following:

  • Sourcing for contractors
  • Assessing contractor CVs
  • Interviewing a contractor
  • Payments
  • Contract terms
  • Terminating a contract
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What is subcontracting? Guide

What is subcontracting?

As an independent contractor, there may come a point in time where you need to consider subcontracting-you might decide to take on work as a subcontractor, or hire a subcontractor for your projects.

Whichever option you're exploring, how do you decide if the benefits truly outweigh the cons? And are there important tips you need to keep in mind?

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What is an independent contractor? Guide

What is an independent contractor?

An independent contractor is an individual who is engaged in a work agreement with a company or entity as a non-employee.

Factors that identify an independent contractor are:

  • They have a greater degree of control over their work
  • They offer a special skill set
  • They are able to get a replacement
  • They aren't entitled to employment benefits
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Is a contractor self employed? Guide

Is a contractor self employed?

Contractors can be self-employed, a worker or an employee. Those who are employed through an umbrella company or an agency could be considered a worker or an employee.

If a contractor is a sole trader or runs a limited company, he or she will then be considered a self-employed person.

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What are the advantages of contracting? Guide

What are the advantages of contracting?

The advantages of contracting are:

  • Flexibility: Contractors have a lot more control over their work life often deciding when they work, where they work and how they work
  • Increased earnings: Contractors are often paid more due to their skillset and the flexible nature of their working relationships. Additionally, contractors who operate through their own limited company can benefit from tax efficiencies.
  • Greater development: Often working with multiple clients throughout their career, contractors are exposed to a lot of opportunities to develop their skills and build on their experience in their area of expertise.
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How do I become a contractor? Guide

How do I become a contractor?

To become a contractor, you need to:

  • Do your research: The first step you'll need to do is to conduct in-depth research, and think through various important factors-from finances and tax implications, to lifestyle and business opportunities-to ascertain if becoming a contractor is the right decision for you.
  • Decide on how you'll operate: As a contractor, you may operate as a sole trader, through your own limited company, or work with an umbrella company or recruitment agency.
  • Develop a business strategy: Strategic planning isn't set in stone-but working out a plan is still helpful, as it is a way for you to consider multiple perspectives, identify potential opportunities and pitfalls and conceptualise back up plans you could fall back on.
  • Get your business finances and insurance sorted out: Setting up a business bank account, registering a company, determining the level of accounting support you need and investing in business insurance are important aspects you need to sort out before you begin contracting.
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What are the changes occurring with the UK VAT after Brexit? Guide

What are the changes occurring with the UK VAT after Brexit?

Here's a brief overview of the VAT changes occurring after Brexit:

Exporting goods to the EU:

  • EC Sales List: Previously, UK VAT-registered businesses that met specific conditions and were supplying goods to VAT-registered customers in the EU had to complete an EC Sales List. This is no longer required.
  • Distance selling threshold: Starting from 1 January 2021, UK sellers can no longer take advantage of the distance selling thresholds.

Importing goods from the EU to the UK:

  • Abolition of Low Value Consignment Relief (LVCR): The LVCR, which relieves import VAT on goods valued at £15 or less will no longer apply to goods imported into the UK, or for goods supplied to Northern Ireland from outside the UK and EU.
  • Postponed VAT accounting: Starting from 1 January 2021, UK VAT registered businesses importing goods from locations worldwide into the UK can use a new system known as postponed VAT accounting.
  • The £135 threshold: Starting 1 January 2021, the point at which VAT is collected on imported goods valued at up to £135 is moved from the point of importation to the point of sale. UK supply VAT-not import VAT-will be charged at the point of sale.

EU VAT Registration Number Validation service:

  • UK businesses will be able to continue to use the EU VAT number validation service to check the validity of EU businesses, but UK VAT registrations will cease to be included.

VAT flat rate scheme:

  • The scheme no longer applies to any sales a seller makes through an online marketplace, where the OMP is liable to account for VAT.

EU VAT refund system:

  • UK businesses can no longer reclaim VAT incurred in other EU countries using the electronic EU VAT refund system.

Further details on the above mentioned changes can be found in our VAT guide for ecommerce businesses.

There are additional VAT changes implemented that do not apply to ecommerce merchants. These include:

  • The VAT treatment of the supply of services to the EU
  • The abolition of the £8,818 annual threshold for cross borders sales of digital services to EU consumers
  • Businesses are no longer able to use the UK's MOSS scheme to report and pay VAT on sales of digital services to consumers in the EU. The new rules regarding the registration for the VAT MOSS non-union scheme in an EU member state will impact UK and non-UK businesses.
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How to Become a Contractor Guide

How to Become a Contractor

So, you're thinking of becoming a contractor.

There's probably one of three reasons driving this:

You've received a Job Offer

You've just received a job offer, and now need to decide on whether to set up a limited company, umbrella company or become a sole trader (or you may not have the choice in deciding).

You're in the right place.

This guide will walk you through the best company structure for you, accounting support, VAT, business services you need to consider and finding new opportunities.

You want to increase your pay

You'd like to increase your pay by switching from permanent roles to interim/ contractor roles.

Contracting can be very lucrative.

You'll need to be comfortable with a certain level of risk (short notice periods), increased monthly admin (as a Limited Company) and less benefits than being an employee (paid leave, sick days).

However, you'll earn more, get greater flexibility and hopefully grow a consulting business.

Project Flexibility

Getting multiple requests for your services? Amazing.

Setting yourself up as a contractor through a Limited Company means you can start expanding your client base rapidly and work on different projects a few days a week.

You can still set this up as a current PAYE employee of a company, and this can be a great stepping stone to launching your own business.

Let's talk about the right business structure for you.

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How to Start Contracting Guide Guide

How to Start Contracting Guide

  • What is a contractor
  • Types of contractors
  • Contractor business structures
  • Contractor accounting
  • Understanding IR35
  • Contractor insurance
  • Banking for contractors
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Contractor Business Services UK Guide

Contractor Business Services UK

Firstly, we'll start with the services that we provide which covers the critical things you'll need to start and operate your contracting business.

For those just getting started, we provide free company registration on Companies House. This is typically done within 24 hours of submitting your details to Forma. It can take under 5 minutes to provide all your details and we'll just need a proof of ID and proof of address for each of the company directors.

We cover all of your key company filing requirements like annual accounts, confirmation statements, corporation tax and ensuring you meet all filing deadlines.

We also help with your annual Self Assessment which is a requirement for all company directors.

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How will ecommerce businesses be impacted by the Brexit trade deal? Guide

How will ecommerce businesses be impacted by the Brexit trade deal?

Here's a brief summary of the ways in which ecommerce businesses will be impacted:

  • Businesses will have to abide by the new import and export rules. We've covered the VAT changes impacting ecommerce businesses in greater detail in our guide.
  • Businesses may face additional paperwork and customs checks.
  • These changes will impact other aspects of your business, such as your supply chain, fulfillment process and pricing. Additional checks may mean a delay in shipping, while the new VAT changes will lead to a rise in costs. As such, businesses may need to decide who will bear the burden of the increased costs, and to assess if revising their prices is necessary.
  • UK citizens and companies established solely in the UK will no longer be eligible to hold .eu domains. This will likely result in additional costs incurred, as business purchase new domains or undertake the necessary measures to demonstrate compliance with the .eu regulatory framework.
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