Limited Company Accounting Support & Company Registration

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Limited Company vs Sole Trader

While operating as a sole trader is a simple and cost-efficient way to start a business, there are significant advantages to running your own limited company.

A limited company is a separate legal entity from its owners. As such, you’re protected by limited liability. Should your company go into debt, you’re only legally responsible up to the extent of the nominal value of your shares.

Running a limited company offers a more tax-efficient way to operate. Relative to sole traders, you’re able to pay a lower rate of income tax and NICs, as well as claim a wider range of allowable business expenses.

Being registered as a limited company also lends credibility to your company. This could lead to increased business opportunities, particularly for contractors, as it isn’t uncommon for established organisations to specify that they’ll only work with freelancers operating through their own limited company.

You’ll also benefit from easier access to funding. As a separate legal entity, your company presents a lower risk to lenders—which increases your chances of obtaining external financing at a lower interest rate, compared to sole traders. Additionally, you have the option of raising funds through selling shares.

What is a Limited Company?

What is a Limited Company?

Limited companies provide numerous benefits, from tax savings to limiting your liability.

But the first step is to understand what a limited company is exactly, and whether setting up such a company can help you achieve your goals. This article will clearly explain the pro's and con's so you can make an educated decision.

In a nutshell, a limited company is a private company that's a separate legal entity from its owner(s). For freelancers and contractors, a limited company is one of the three main business structures that you may use to run your business (the others being sole trader and umbrella companies).

In this article, we walk you through:

  • What a "separate legal entity" means
  • The different types of Limited Companies
  • The pros and cons of setting up a Limited Company
  • How to start a Limited Company
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Deciding between Sole Trader vs Limited Company vs Umbrella

Deciding between Sole Trader vs Limited Company vs Umbrella

If you're planning to start out on your own, one of the most important decisions you'll need to make is figuring out how you should structure your business.

As a freelancer, contractor or small business owner, there are three main types of legal structures you should consider:

  • Sole proprietorship
  • Limited company
  • Working through an umbrella company

It's a decision that requires careful consideration, and it's important that you seek advice from qualified professionals when you weigh out the pros and cons of each business structure. To begin with, you need to have a good grasp of the basics - and here's where our guide comes into the picture.

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What do I need to do as a Company Director?

What do I need to do as a Company Director?

Your responsibilities as a limited company director include:

  • Your company must be registered at Companies House
  • Your company's annual accounts must be filed at Companies House
  • A Confirmation Statement must be submitted annually. This can be done online or via post. This is a filing requirement introduced in 2016 to replace the Annual Return (Form AR01).
  • Submit an annual Corporation Tax to HMRC. Any outstanding tax must be paid within nine months and one day of your company's year-end accounting.
  • Register for Self Assessment with HMRC, and submit your personal tax return each year.
  • If you have employees and are running the company payroll, you need to report your employees' payments and deductions to HMRC on or before your employees' payday. You need to pay what you owe to HMRC each month.
  • If your VAT taxable turnover exceeds the VAT threshold, you'll need to register for VAT and complete your VAT returns online at the end of every financial quarter.
  • Maintain proper company records
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How do I find my company number?

How do I find my company number?

A company number (also known as a company registration number) is an eight-digit number that is assigned by Companies House to a company upon incorporation.

You can locate the number on your certificate of incorporation. The first digit of the company number is usually a zero, and is omitted in most instances. As such, your certificate of incorporation will show a seven-digit company number.

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What are my Limited Company Directors Responsibilities?

What are my Limited Company Directors Responsibilities?

As the director of a limited company, your responsibilities include:

  • Your company must be registered at Companies House
  • Your company's annual accounts must be filed at Companies House
  • A Confirmation Statement must be submitted annually. This can be done online or via post. This is a filing requirement introduced in 2016 to replace the Annual Return (Form AR01).
  • Submit an annual Corporation Tax to HMRC. Any outstanding tax must be paid within nine months and one day of your company's year-end accounting.
  • Register for Self Assessment with HMRC, and submit your personal tax return each year.
  • If you have employees and are running the company payroll, you need to report your employees' payments and deductions to HMRC on or before your employees' payday. You need to pay what you owe to HMRC each month.
  • If your VAT taxable turnover exceeds the VAT threshold, you'll need to register for VAT and complete your VAT returns online at the end of every financial quarter.
  • Maintain proper company records.
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How to Register a Limited Company

Before you begin your registration process to set up a limited company, there are a few things you need to consider.

You need to choose the type of limited company you need (public limited company or private limited company), choose a company name and decide on how you’re going to set up your company. For the latter, you have the option of registering with Companies House or using a third-party service, like an accountant or company formation agent.

Once you’ve gotten these sorted out, you’ll be ready to begin the company formation process.

This involves completing documents like the Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Form 10 and Form 12, after which your application will be processed. Companies House will typically provide an update in the next working day, and mail out a hard copy of your articles of incorporation.

Now that you’ve registered your company, there are a few additional items to cross off your checklist.

You need to open a business bank account, ensure that you’ve received your company UTR number and complete your VAT registration (or if you were VAT-registered as a sole trader, you need to notify HMRC of your transition to a limited company structure).

You’ll also need to set up your payroll, update your company details on your website and business documents (such as your order forms and business letters), and get your accounts sorted out.

Registering a Limited Company Guide

Registering a Limited Company Guide

  • What is a Limited Company
  • 10 step process for setting up a Limited Company
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How to set up a Limited Company

How to set up a Limited Company

When you set up a limited company, you'll enjoy many advantages you don't get as a sole trader. Not only is it a tax-efficient way to run your business, it's also a great way to limit your personal liability and increase your credibility with customers. Additionally, it could open new avenues of work that wouldn't be open to you if you were operating as a sole trader, especially some contractor roles.

One of the disadvantages of running a limited company is that it involves a lot of paperwork, but with the help of this guide, we'll clear away the jargon and tell you exactly what you need.

If you're unsure about whether a limited company is right for you, check out our handy article comparing the differences between Limited companies and Sole Traders to see which business entity is right for you.

If you've got more important things to do than dealing with extra admin, you can always take advantage of one of our accountancy packages and we'll do all the forms and applications for you.

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What type of business structure is best for you?

What type of business structure is best for you?

If you're looking to the future with the hopes of beginning a journey running your own startup, chances are you're feeling some mixture of excitement, trepidation, and uncertainty when it comes to the finer details of your plan.

Starting your own business is an immensely fulfilling process and an excellent means to flex your creative muscles, but there's a lot of humdrum of business behind the process of turning a vision into a dream.

One of the most important (and one of the earliest) decisions in this process will centre around your business's formation. You'll have to select which type of business structure best suits your goals for the future.

While the choice may sound easy, you'll be well-served by giving the decision ample consideration. The business structure you select will have measurable implications on the way you make money and do business. It'll impact:

  • How much tax you pay
  • Your degree of personal liability should the business fail
  • How much administrative work is involved in the business (both before it comes to fruition and over the course of its life)
  • Your ability to finance and fund your efforts

If you make the wrong selection when it comes time to choose a business structure, you could be faced with a myriad of complications in the future.

Paying professionals for guidance and advice once things go wrong is costly and, for many, an embarrassing affair-performing research well in advance will ensure you're making the best choice for your company and that you can avoid losing out on money or pride later on.

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3 Ways to Register Your Company for Free

3 Ways to Register Your Company for Free

Registering a company is a one off cost of £12 and done through Companies House. However, there are a few different ways that you can get this fee waved with other business services that you need.

We'll walk you through how to register your company for free and the perks that you'll get with each.

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Advantages of a limited company

Advantages of a limited company

What are the advantages of a private limited company?

In the UK, the majority of self-employed people operate as sole traders. While there are many advantages to being a sole trader, you could take home more money and give your business a professional edge by setting up as a limited company.

In this article, we'll look at the advantages of operating as a private limited company to see how it could benefit you. If you're interested in seeing whether a limited company could be a good option for your business, check out our Business Structure guide. If you're already operating as a sole trader, making the jump to a limited company is more straight forward than you think.

Advantage 1 ‚- You pay less tax and National Insurance Contributions

Who can turn their nose up at the prospect of increased take-home pay? Well, that's the principle benefit of setting up a limited company and one of the main factors that drive people to switch from a sole trader.

As a director of a limited company, the way you pay tax is different from how you pay as a sole trader. As a sole trader, you'll pay 20% or more on everything you earn over the tax threshold. As a limited company, you typically pay yourself a small salary so you incur as little personal tax as possible. The majority of your income will come in the form of dividends that are taxed at a much smaller rate, meaning you're able to maximise your take-home pay.

As well as the tax benefits, paying the majority of your income through dividends means that you're able to pay less National Insurance Contributions (NICs) as these do not apply to dividend payments.

Example - Here's a quick comparison of the difference in take-home pay for a sole trader and a limited company.

  1. Sole Trader

    Revenue: £40,000

    Expenses: £1000

    Tax at 20%: £5,300

    Class 2 NIC: £158.60

    Class 4 NIC: £2,655

    **Take-home pay: £30,886.40

    **

  2. **Limited Company

    **Revenue: £40,000

    Expenses: £1000

    Corporation tax: £5741.04

    Dividend tax at 7.5%: 1,406.92

    Take-home pay: £ 31,852.04

As you can see, you save £965.64 as a limited company. What's not to like?

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Limited Company Filing Deadlines

Being a limited company director comes with several legal responsibilities. In addition to your statutory duties, you’re also responsible for meeting your filing deadlines.

These include:

  • File your Self Assessment by 31st January following the end of the relevant tax year.
  • If you’re VAT-registered, you need to file your VAT returns 1 month and 7 days after your VAT quarter end date.
  • File your company accounts 9 months after your company year-end. If you’re in your first trading year, your first annual accounts are due 21 months after your date of incorporation
  • File your Confirmation Statement up to 14 days after the due date. The due date is 12 months after the date your company was incorporated, or 12 months after the date you filed your previous Confirmation Statement. 
  • File your company tax return 12 months after the end of the relevant tax year.
  • If you’ve just begun employing staff or using subcontractors for construction work, you need to register as an employer before an employee’s first payday. 
  • If you already have employees, there are a number of deadlines you need to meet for your payroll year end
  • Submit your final payroll report for the year before your employee’s final payday for the tax year ending 5th April. 
  • Provide your employees with the P60 by 31st May (following the end of the relevant tax year). 
  • File employee benefits and expenses using your payroll software, and submit your P11D and P11d(b) forms by 6th July.
  • In addition to the payroll year-end deadlines, you’re also required to:

Send the FPS on or before your employees’ payday. The FPS must be submitted each time you pay your employee. This means that if your employee is paid weekly, you’ll need to make 52 submissions across the year.

What is your First Accounting Year End Date?

What is your First Accounting Year End Date?

The first accounting year end date for a new company is the last day of the month in which the first anniversary falls on. For example, if your company was incorporated on 15 January 2021, the first accounting year end date will be 31 January 2022.

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What are the late filing and payment penalties?

What are the late filing and payment penalties?

PAYE

RTI late filing will incur a monthly penalty of £100, depending on the number of employees you have.

Self Assessment

A late filing penalty of £100 is imposed if your tax return is up to three months late. The penalty increases if you're later than three months, or if you pay your tax bill late. Additionally, interest will be charged on late payments.

VAT

You may be required to pay a surcharge if you submit a late return. Surcharges for late payments or VAT return filings are indicated on the HMRC website.

Corporation Tax

HMRC's penalties are as follows:

  • 1 day late: £100
  • 3 months late: An additional £100
  • 6 months late: Your total corporation tax bill will be estimated, after which a penalty of 10% of unpaid tax will be imposed.
  • 12 months late: An additional penalty of 10% of unpaid tax will be imposed.

Company accounts

The following penalties for private limited companies will be imposed if you fail to file your accounts with Companies House on time:

  • Up to 1 month late: £150
  • 1 - 3 months late: £375
  • 3 - 6 months late: £750
  • More than 6 months late: £1,500
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Key Things You Need When Starting a Limited Company

“What do I need to do after setting up a limited company?” is a question we’re often asked by users who’ve registered for our limited company accounting packages.

Here’s a brief overview of what you need to do:

  • Fulfill your responsibilities as a limited company director
  • Open a business bank account
  • Keep your stakeholders updated: If you’re transitioning from being a sole trader to a limited company structure, you’ll need to notify stakeholders—like your banks, debtors, landlords and insurers—of the change. With stakeholders like your suppliers and customers, you may need to review your contract, and transfer it to your new company. 
  • Get your VAT sorted out: You may need to register for VAT. And if you’re already VAT-registered, you may request for a transfer to be made to your new company, or cancel your VAT and complete a re-registration. 
  • Set up your payroll
  • Ensure that your company details are up-to-date: As a limited company, you need to meet specific requirements when it comes to displaying your company information. Your company name must be included on all company documents, letters and communication materials. In addition, your websites, business letters and order forms must show your company’s registered number, registered office address, where your company is incorporated and indicate that your company is a private limited company.  
  • Obtain business insurance: If you’re an employer, you’re legally required to obtain employer's liability insurance. Other types of business insurance you should consider getting include public liability insurance, professional indemnity insurance and business contents insurance. 
  • Get your books sorted: If you were already using an accounting package as a sole trader, you’ll need to create a new account and start anew. And even if you were managing your own accounts before, do note that the requirements of limited company accounting can be complicated—so you’ll benefit from using accounting  software, or from the expertise and advice of a specialist accountant.

Small Business Accounting Guide

Small Business Accounting Guide

  • When and why you may want to register a Limited Company
  • Advantages and disadvantages of a Limited company
  • Limited company alternatives
  • When to register for VAT
  • Advantages and disadvantages of VAT
  • How to take money out of your company
  • Dividend tax rates
  • Limited company expenses & corporation tax
  • Annual accounts and deadlines
  • Confirmation statements and deadlines
  • Self Assessment tax returns
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Accountant Checklist Guide

Accountant Checklist Guide

  • Why you may need an accountant
  • Key areas an accountant can help
  • Questions to ask an accountant
  • Accountant checklist
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Bookkeeping vs Accounting Differences

Bookkeeping vs Accounting Differences

As a small business owner, having a good grasp of your business financials is key-even if you've hired an accountant.

While you can delegate your accounting tasks, understanding the basics will place you in a better position when it comes to discussing your business finances with your team members, financial professionals or potential investors.

-

Previously, we've explained about the top accounting terms and concepts you need to know. In today's post, we'll explain the differences between bookkeeping and accounting. While these two terms are often used interchangeably, they refer to two vastly distinct functions and roles.

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Creating your business budget

Creating your business budget

Running a business involves catering for many aspects of the business that can bog you down.

You can even forget crucial roles, such as monitoring your small business finances. Although budgeting may not be the best and most exciting part of running an enterprise, it is fundamental for success.

When starting a new business, a budget is a vital part of your business plan. Once the business is open and operational, then budgeting becomes an essential exercise that takes place annually or quarterly.

A budget comprises of fixed and variable costs accompanied by the allocation of monies to reflect business objectives.

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5 Common Small Business Accounting Mistakes & How to Fix Them

5 Common Small Business Accounting Mistakes & How to Fix Them

A broad swath of small business owners are tackling the myriad tasks required to pay bills, invoice customers, cut checks to employees and contend with past-due accounts, among other accounting tasks.

While that might work for very small businesses, it often opens the door for firms to make accounting mistakes that undermine their growth and siphon precious time and mental focus from other important areas of their business.

Here are five accounting mistakes that can derail growth for small businesses and how to avoid them.

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Limited Company Accounting Pricing

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Payroll for 1 director
Annual Accounts
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